May 20, 2013

ついに発表、E-Cat 第三者試験結果は良好

この文は、E-Cat 第三者試験結果(2013年5月公開)のレポート




もし、アクセスできないときはこちらからも同じ物(初版)がダウンロードできます。 (Cornell University Library)でも次のURLで公開です。

もともとのネタ記事はこちら、 E-Cat World の記事(初版)です。

3rd Party Report: E-Cat at least one order of magnitude greater than conventional energy sources

第三者報告:E-Cat 既存のエネルギー資源に比べて少なくとも、一桁以上の出力

Appendix on Electrical Measurements Added to 3rd Party Report


版変更点サマリ、1. 本文ではわかりやすい英語に直したところ数カ所、2. 表データの記入漏れを埋めたところ一箇所、E-Catサイトで議論された質問に応えて電気計測の付録追加


Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device
containing hydrogen loaded nickel powder.


Giuseppe Levi
Bologna University, Bologna, Italy
Evelyn Foschi
Bologna, Italy
Torbjorn Hartman, Bo Hoistad, Roland Pettersson and Lars Tegner
Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Hanno Essen
Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

ジュゼッペ リーバイ
イヴリン フォッシ
Torbjorn ハートマン、ボー Hoistad、ローランド Pettersson および ラース・テグネール
Hanno エッセン
王立工科大学 、ストックホルム、スウェーデン


An experimental investigation of possible anomalous heat production in a special type of reactor
tube named E-Cat HT is carried out.

E-Cat HTという反応炉チューブの特殊なタイプでの可能性のある異常熱産生の実験調査が、が行われた。

The reactor tube is charged with a small amount of hydrogen loaded nickel powder plus some additives.

The reaction is primarily initiated by heat from resistor coils inside the reactor tube.


Measurement of the produced heat was performed with high-resolution thermal imaging cameras, recording data every second from the hot reactor tube.


The measurements of electrical power input were performed with a large bandwidth threephase power analyzer.


Data were collected in two experimental runs lasting 96 and 116 hours, respectively.


An anomalous heat production was indicated in both experiments.


The 116-hour experiment also included a calibration of the experimental set-up without the active charge present in the E-Cat HT.

116時間の実験はまた、E-Cat HTで存在するアクティブチャージなしの実験的セットアップの校正が含んでいた。

In this case, no extra heat was generated beyond the expected heat from the electric input.


Computed volumetric and gravimetric energy densities were found to be far above those of any known chemical source.


Even by the most conservative assumptions as to the errors in the measurements, the result is still one order of magnitude greater than conventional energy sources.




Andrea Rossi claims to have invented an apparatus that can produce much more energy per unit weight of fuel than can be obtained from known chemical processes.


His invention is referred to as an energy catalyzer named E-Cat HT, where HT stands for high temperature.

彼の本発明は、エネルギー触媒、E-Cat HT、ここで HTは、高温の略、と呼ばれる。

The original idea behind Rossi’s invention goes back to experiments done in the nineties by S. Focardi at Bologna University and collaborators, in which they claimed to have observed an anomalous heat production in a hydrogen-loaded nickel rod [1-2].

ロッシの発明の背後にあるオリジナルのアイデアは、ボローニャ大学の S. Focardiと共同研究者によって、90年代に行われた実験にさかのぼる、そこで、彼らは、水素・ロードされたニッケルロッドにて、異常熱産生を観察したと主張している[1-2]。

The original idea behind Rossi’s invention goes back to experiments done in the nineties by
Sergio Focardi at Bologna University and collaborators, in which they claimed to have
observed an anomalous heat production in a hydrogen-loaded nickel rod [1-2].

ロッシの発明の背後にあるオリジナルのアイデアは、ボローニャ大学の Sergio Focardiと共同研究者によって、90年代に行われた実験にさかのぼる、そこで、彼らは、水素・ロードされたニッケルロッドにて、異常熱産生を観察したと主張している[1-2]。

Later, an experiment [3] was carried out by S. Focardi and A. Rossi using an apparatus with a sealed container holding nickel powder plus unknown additives pressurized with hydrogen gas.

その後、実験[3]は、S. A. Focardiとロッシにより行われ、ニッケル粉末を保持する密閉容器に、水素ガスで加圧し秘密の添加剤を有する装置を用いた。

When the container was heated, substantial heat was produced in excess of the input heat.


They speculated that a “low energy nuclear reaction” had taken place in order to explain the large amount of excess heat.

彼らは、 "低エネルギー核反応"が、大量の過剰な熱を説明するため必要であると推測した。

The E-Cat HT - a further, high temperature development of the original apparatus which has also undergone many construction changes in the last two years - is the latest product manufactured by Leonardo Corporation:

E-キャットHTは - 元の装置からさらなる高温の開発、それは、また、過去2年間で多くの構造の変化を遂げている - レオナルド社製の最新の製品です。

it is a device allegedly capable of producing heat from some type of reaction the origin of which is unknown.



As in the original E-Cat, the reaction is fueled by a mixture of nickel, hydrogen, and a catalyst,  which is kept as an industrial trade secret.


The charge sets off the production of thermal energy after having been activated by heat produced by a set of resistor coils located inside the reactor.


Once operating temperature is reached, it is possible to control the reaction by regulating the power to the coils.


The scope of the present work is to make an independent test of the E-Cat HT reactor under controlled conditions and with high precision instrumentation.


It should be emphasized that the measurement must be performed with high accuracy and reliability, so that any possible excess heat production can be established beyond any doubt, as no known processes exist which can explain any abundant heat production in the E-Cat reactor.



The present report describes the results obtained from evaluations of the operation of the E-Cat HT in two test runs.


The first test experiment, lasting 96 hours (from Dec. 13th 2012, to Dec. 17th 2012), was carried out by the two first authors of this paper, Levi and Foschi, while the second experiment, lasting for 116 hours (from March 18th 2013, to March 23rd 2013), was carried out by all authors.


Both experiments were performed on the premises of EFA Srl, Via del Commercio 34-36, Ferrara (Italy).

両方の実験はデルペッレグリーノ34-36、フェラーラ(イタリア)を介して、EFA SRLの敷地内で行われた。


The tests held in December 2012 and March 2013 are in fact subsequent to a previous attempt in November 2012 to make accurate measurements on a similar model of the E-Cat HT on the same premises.


In that experiment the device was destroyed in the course of the experimental run, when the steel cylinder containing the active charge overheated and melted.


The partial data gathered before the failure, however, yielded interesting results which warranted further in-depth investigation in future tests.

Although the run was not successful as far as obtaining complete data is concerned, it was fruitful in that it demonstrated a huge production of excess heat, which however could not be quantified.


The device used had similar, but not identical, features to those of the E-Cat HT used in the December and March runs.

使用されたデバイスは、12月と3月の実行に使用された E-キャットHTのものと機能は似ていますが、同一ではありませんでした。


Besides some minor geometrical differences, in the E-Cat HT used for the November test the charge in the inner cylinder was not evenly distributed, but concentrated in two distinct locations along the central axis.


In addition, the primer resistor coils were run at about 1 kW, which might be the cause of the ensuing device failure.


For these reasons, a more prudent reactor design was chosen for the test held in December and March, by distributing the charge evenly along its container cylinder, and limiting the power input to the reactor to 360 W.

これらの理由から、12月から3月に開催されたテストのために、より慎重な反応器設計が、選択され、その容器シリンダーに沿って均等にチャージを配布し、360 Wに反応器への電力入力を制限することになった。

Since the test in November shows some interesting features, we shall describe some of the results from this test in some detail before discussing, in the subsequent sections, the results from the December and March runs.


Figures 1 and 2 refer to the November test, and show, respectively, the device while in operation, and a laptop computer capturing data from a thermographic camera focused on it.


An Optris IR camera monitored surface temperature trends, and yielded results of approximately 860 °C in the hottest areas.

Optris IRカメラは、表面温度の傾向を監視し、最も熱いエリアで 約860°C の結果を得た。

Figs. 1-2. Two images from the test performed on Nov. 20th 2012. Here, the activation of the charge (distributed laterally in the reactor) is especially obvious. 

図。 1-2。 2012年11月20日に実行されたテストからの二つの画像。ここでは、チャージ(反応器内で横方向に分散)の活性化は、特に明らかである。

The darker lines in the photograph are actually the shadows of the resistor coils, which yield only a minimal part of the total thermal power. 


The performance of this device was such that the reactor was destroyed, melting the internal steel cylinder and the surrounding ceramic layers.


The longterm trials analyzed in the present report were purposely performed at a lower temperatures for safety reasons.


Fig. 3 shows a thermal video frame from the IR camera: the temperature of 859 °C refers to Area - 3 - 2 (delimited by the “cross hairs”), whereas the average temperature recorded for the body of the device, relevant to the rectangle indicated as Area 1, is 793 °C.

図3は、赤外線カメラからの熱映像フレームを示す: 859℃の温度は、エリア 3から2 ("十字線"で区切られる)、を指します、一方、エリア1として示さ長方形に関連する機器の本体のための記録された平均温度は、793℃である。

Fig. 3. Thermal image of the November test device. 


The temperature of 859 °C refers to the area within the circle of the mark (Area 2). 


The graphs on right show the temperature trends along the horizontal line traversing the device (X Profile), and along the vertical line on the left of the image (Y Profile).



Graphs on the right side of fig.3 show the temperature distribution monitored along the two visible lines in the image: 


the X Profile refers to the horizontal line traversing the whole device,

the Y Profile shows the temperature along the vertical line located on the left side of the thermal image. 


This latter distribution allows one to reach some interesting conclusions.



If one relates the length of the vertical line (32 pixels) to the diameter of the device (11 cm), one may infer that each pixel in the image corresponds to a length of approximately 0.34 cm on the device (with some approximation, due to the fact that the thermal image is a two-dimensional projection of a cylindrical object). 

もし、装置の直径(11 cm)に対する垂直な線(32画素)の長さを関連させる場合、画像の各画素が、デバイス上で約0.34センチメートルの長さに対応することができると推論できる(いくつかの近似で、熱画像は、円筒形物体の二次元投影であるという事実による)。

The thermal image shows a series of stripe-like, darker horizontal lines, which are confirmed by the five temperature dips in the Y Profile. 


This means that, in the device image, a darker line appears every 6.4 pixels approximately, corresponding to 2.2 cm on the device itself. 


As mentioned previously, the E-Cat HT needs resistor coils in order to work; 


these are set horizontally, parallel to and equidistant from the cylinder axis, and extend throughout the whole length of the device. 


By dividing the circumference of the base of the cylinder by the number of coils, one may infer that the 16 resistor coils in this device were laid out at a distance of 2.17 cm one from the other.


And, by comparing the distance between darker stripes and the distance between coils, one may reach the conclusion that the lower temperatures picked up by the thermal camera nicely match the areas overlying the resistor coils. 


In other words, the temperature dips visible in the diagram are actually shadows of the resistor coils, projected on the camera lens by a source of energy located further inside the device, and of higher intensity as compared to the energy emitted by the coils themselves.