Nov 1, 2016

What can we research about LENR?

There are translated English and original Japanese in this article.

What can we research about LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reactions)?

(LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reactions)について研究できることは何か)

One of the goals of LENR researchers is to develop an inexpensive commercial reactor with an easier nuclear reaction than the thought in the conventional thermal nuclear fusion technology.


It has been found there were more nuclear reactions by a stimulus at the contact surface between hydrogen (or deuterium) and metal, or, by a stimulus to absorb metal with hydrogen (or deuterium)  in the results of the past experimental studies of LENR than the prediction of the conventional theory.


It has been known that catalysts accelerate a chemical reaction in a chemical process. The study of LENR is an attempt to find materials or methods like catalysts also in nuclear reactions.


It is limited to study in the view of the accumulation of technology with the human beings.

  1. Study of contact and absorbing method (接触・吸蔵方法の研究)
  2. Study of material (材料の研究)
  3. Study of stimulation method (刺激方法の研究)
  4. Study of reaction volume (反応量の研究)
  5. Use of computer (コンピューターの活用)
1. Study of contact and absorbing method (接触・吸蔵方法の研究)

There are three systems of a contact or absorbing of a metal with hydrogen.


(a) Electrolysis method in a solution(電解液での電気分解方式)

Research state : Pummeled
Advantage :  an inexpensive device which anyone can experiment with
Problem  :  The lack of reproducibility, the electrolytic solution will be boiling in the Celsius 100 ℃ or more.

(研究状態 : 停滞している
長所 : 誰でも実験できる安価な装置
問題点 : 再現性の欠如、摂氏100℃以上では電解液が沸騰してしまう)

(b)Gas loading method (ガスローディング法)

(The contact method between a metal wire or a metal nano-powder and hydrogen gas, deuterium gas)


Research state : Pummeled
Advantage :  The scale of the device which can experiment in the laboratory of the University
Problem  :  Excess heat is too small. A small volume of the nuclear reaction area from the device structure. The stimulus is too weak to be supplied to the hydrogen nuclei. It does not give a direct stimulus on the metal surface by the mechanism. There is a question to keep the shape of metal nano powder in a practical use for many days.

(研究状態 : 停滞している
長所 : 大学の研究所で実験できる装置規模
問題点 : 過剰熱発熱量が少なすぎる、装置構造から核反応領域の体積が少ない、水素原子核に与える刺激が弱すぎる、機構上金属表面に直接刺激を与えていない、実用時に金属ナノパウダーの形状維持に疑問)

(c)Continuous hydrogen supply to the hydrogen-absorbing metal and discharge in vacuum (水素吸蔵金属へ連続的水素供給と真空での放電方式)

Research state : not started yet
The advantage to be expected : It can be satisfied at all times in a metal with a high concentration of hydrogen. A large volume of nuclear reaction area. The electrode withstands the strong stimulus by the solid metal blank. A vacuum can be kept suitable for the super-high voltage discharge to continue to suck the inside of the apparatus. Similar small apparatus scale as same as the gas loading method.
Expected problems : There is no convinced prediction of  the amount of generation of neutron or helium.

(研究状態 : 未着手
予想される長所 : 金属内を高濃度の水素で常時満たすことが可能のため核反応領域の体積が大きい、電極は金属塊を想定しており強い刺激に耐えられる、装置内を吸引し続けることで超高圧放電に適した真空を維持できる、ガスローディング法と同様の小型の装置規模
予想される問題点 : 中性子やヘリウムの発生量がうまく予測できない)

2. Study of material(材料の研究)

There is a sea of free electrons responsible for conductivity in solid or liquid metal. When protons or the nucleus of  deuterium blend into the sea of free electrons, you may get a higher concentrated sea of  protons than the gas-plasma. A higher concentrated sea of  electrons and protons has been assumed as a root cause of the higher rate of nuclear reaction more than the conventional theory. There are a lot of hypothesis to explain the phenomenon of LENR. However, we get low reproducibility of the phenomenon in the experiment. Even if high reproducibility, the amount of reaction is extremely small. The hypothesis is just a hypothesis.


They use a hydrogen atom or a deuterium atom in the many studies of LENR. It is better to use low cost hydrogen available everywhere instead of expensive deuterium.


Hydrogen : Cheap, abundant. It can be easily created  from the water.
Deuterium: expensive, however, there is no fear of depletion.

(水素 : 安価、豊富。水から簡単に作成・入手できる
重水素 : 高価、ただし、枯渇の心配はない)

It is also better to use low cost metalic material available everywhere.


Palladium: very expensive, rare article
Lithium: expensive, enough presence
Nickel: medium prices, enough presence
Iron: Cheapest, there is no fear of depletion.
Aluminum: significantly cheap, there is no fear of depletion.


We can consider three shapes in metal, nano powder, solid mass, liquid.


Nano-powder metal : There is often the initial chemical reaction heat since the reaction surface area is large in the gas loading method. It is is considered that nuclear reaction is also initially satisfactory. As the nuclear reaction proceeds, if the powder will melt with high heat, the surface area is reduced, the stimulation of the hydrogen is reduced at the same time, we can predict that nuclear reaction is also reduced. Nano powder is expected to be toxic to the human body.


Solid mass metal: There is a wire shape metal with the experiment in the gas loading method. We know that the amount of heat is generated small. You can guess the reason that the surface area of the wire is too small for the purpose of contact with hydrogen. Gas loading method will not be suitable for solid mass metal. It will be need to fill hydrogen in the interior of the metal.


Liquid metal: The metal with a low melting point is supposed to be liquid in the reactor at the time of actual operation. Liquid needs to be placed in the container. Liquid metal absorbed hydrogen also will be available in the method of continuous hydrogen supply to the hydrogen-absorbing metal and discharge in vacuum.


3. Study of stimulation method (刺激方法の研究)

The ignition of a gasoline engine is done by an electric spark. It has been considered necessary to stimulate the nucleus for an ignition even in LENR. However, there are only little ways in the state of the art of the human race.


The sun is a nuclear fusion reactor of natural. The center temperature of the sun is 15 million degrees and it is really high temperature. However, it is the kinetic energy of particles accelerated in just 1293 [V]. But the central density of the sun is 156 [g / cm3]. It is about 10 times denser than the metal on the earth. Nuclear fusion of the sun is expected to last about 10 billion years. It is a very low probability that a turn only comes once in 10 billion years for the one of the protons in the sun. In other words, the nuclear reactions in the sun is very slow because very few of the protons to participate. It is a phenomenon that is described as a probability in the tunnel effect of the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics.


The density of the metal on the earth is too lower than one-tenth of the central density of the sun. If it, there is an expectation that the strength of the stimulus should be greater than ten times of 1293[V] of the sun for each nucleus in order to hold the probability of a nuclear reaction as same as the sun. However, the stimulation of experiments in LENR  has been weak until now.


If we will be able to improve the probability of reproduction of LENR phenomenon, many scientists will be interested in LENR. The progress of the research will be faster by more scientists. We now need the experimental apparatus to give a strong stimulus for each nucleus.


Heat : A nuclear reaction can not be expected at all with the temperature at which the metal material does not melt and evaporation.


Light: A nuclear reaction can not be expected with the photon of about ultraviolet light which energy is the order of a few eV.


Laser light : Laser light can heat orbital electrons of a macro area in a nucleus scale. The energy of one photon is approximately only several electron Volt in the current laser technology. It is not enough to cause a nuclear reaction. Ultra-high heating is almost impossible by the laser beam in a nucleus scale. However, it is possible that a highly dense light such as laser will continue to supply the totally large momentum to particles by colliding photons in many and much times. But, the implosion technology is incomplete by irradiating all a laser beam at once directed from the periphery to the center point in terms of efficiency and precision control. It is famous that the scale is too huge of the experimental reactor that really exists using a laser implosion nuclear fusion. Now, it seems impossible to reduce the size of the device.


Gas discharge : A method of promoting the plasma by discharge in hydrogen or deuterium gas. It can be expected that there is a very small probability in case of strong collision to cause a nuclear reaction by nuclei moving at random with high temperature in the thermodynamics. It can be assumed that the probability is lower than that of nuclear fusion in the sun.


Implosion discharge to spherical center : It is a method of generating a neutron to collect protons or deuterium ions into the center of the sphere by ultra-high-voltage pulse between double spherical net electrodes in an atmosphere of hydrogen or deuterium plasma made by a lower voltage discharge. It is now said that the efficiency is very small for neutron generation by input energy. But it has already been a commercialization  technology as a neutron generator. There is an idea that the generated neutrons will be reacted with hydrogen or deuterium absorbing metal in order to realize the LENR.


High voltage pulse : It is a process to prompt the collision of electron and proton with a stimulus sometimes to give a high voltage pulse that is from millions bolt to tens of thousands volts in the electrolysis method.


High voltage discharge :  It is possible to collide efficiently the electrons accelerated to the near speed of light by high voltage discharge from millions volt to tens of thousands volt to the nuclei charged with positive electricity of the positive electrode like protons as hydrogen nuclei or deuterium nuclei in vacuum. However, this method has not yet studied in LENR. The efficiency of the nuclear reaction is unclear. It may be positively easy to experiment with a very weak pulse current of one million volts. Because you can buy 1 million volt stun gun at Amazon at several hundred US dollars.

(高圧放電 : 真空中で数万ボルトから数百万ボルトという高圧放電で、光速近くまで加速した電子を正電極の正電気を帯びた原子核、例えば水素原子核である陽子や重水素核に効率よく衝突させることができる。しかし、この方法でのLENRはほとんど研究されておらず核反応の効率は不明確である。ただし、百万ボルトの微弱なパルス電流であれば容易に実験できる。数百ドルで100万ボルトのスタンガンをアマゾンで買えるからである。)

Nuclear radiation by high voltage field :  It is possible to collide efficiently the protons or deuterium nuclei accelerated to the high speed by high voltage field from millions volt to tens of thousands volt to the electrons charged with negative electricity or the nuclei charged with positive electricity in the negative electrode in vacuum. A conventional cation gun has the way to draw positive particles through the ring shaped of the negative electrode from the plasma after ionizing the gas. It has a focus on precise control. Utilization efficiency of energy is not so good. The improvement plan is to direct radiation of positive particles from the metal that absorbs hydrogen or deuterium. This method also has not yet studied in LENR. The efficiency of the nuclear reaction is unclear.


Radiation by radioactive material : It is a method of using strong energy as a stimulus from α particles = helium nucleus,  β particles = strong electron beam or gamma rays by the radioactive substance. Low cost may be able to be considered if you re-use the nuclear waste.


Now, the main component of the cosmic rays is a muon observed on the ground. About 160 are observed per second per square meter.  The exposure amount of cosmic rays is 0.04 [μ Sv / hour]  per 1 [kg] of a human body on average. According to the calculations, it has received the energy of 67 [MeV / sec] from cosmic rays per 1 [kg] of a human body. Then, the average energy exposure would be about 10 [MeV] by one of the muon. And it seems that the range of energy is very wide. By the way, there is a phenomenon called gamma-ray bursts that fall on a powerful cosmic rays which continued while a few seconds to a few hours in several times a day. The number and energy of the muon is to concentrate in a short period of time while the gamma-ray burst.  The gamma-ray bursts might have been related in low reproducibility of LENR phenomenon.

(地上で観測される宇宙線の主成分はミュー粒子です。1平方メートル当たり毎秒にすると160個程度が観測されています。人体1[kg]あたりの宇宙線の被ばく量は平均すると0.04 [μ Sv / hour]とされます。計算によると、人体1[kg]あたり67 [MeV/ sec]のエネルギーを宇宙線から受けています。すると、一個のミュー粒子から被ばくする平均エネルギーは約10[MeV]でしょう。その範囲は幅広いと考えられています。ところで、一日に数回数秒から数時間継続して強力な宇宙線が降りかかるガンマ線バーストと呼ばれる現象があります。ガンマ線バーストでは、ミュー粒子の個数とエネルギーは短時間に集中するはずです。再現性の低いLENR現象にはガンマ線バーストが関係しているかもしれません。)

The final amount of heat generation is not different either through the path of the compression-ignition-explosion or another path of slow fairly fever near the room temperature using a platinum catalyst in the chemical reaction of combustion of gasoline as a thermal chemical formula. We can assume that the final amount of heat generation is not different through what path with what kind of nuclear reactions even in LENR according to the laws of physics if the first fuel and the last of the ash are the same. So, it is important to accurately measure the last of the ash.


There is also a criticism that it is no longer LENR to use the high voltage discharge,  the acceleration by high voltage electric field or the radiation of radioactive material. But a typical mass defect of a nuclear reaction is several MeV. I think that it is still in LENR to use some number of particles with several MeV as a stimulus.


And, it is important to provide a low cost and safe experimental apparatus with a reproduction of nuclear reactions in order to attract many researchers and to advance the progress of research.


4. Study of reaction volume (反応の種類と量の研究)

It is need to study how other nuclear reactions proceed after the stimulus to start a nuclear reaction in LENR. It is studied in the types and amounts of nuclear reaction. The types are a forced nuclear fusion, a forced fission and a spontaneous nuclear decay. The forced nuclear fusion and the forced fission are something due to artificial stimulus or other thing due to the secondary collision by the occurrence particles.


A nuclear reaction will be preferred if it is suitable for efficient use of energy. One of the best is the form of explosive burning of a small amount of fuel like the combustion of gasoline. It is a perfect control that we can cause a small explosion continuously. Typical examples of the explosion phenomena in nuclear reaction is  fission of 235 uranium. When the neutron collides with the 235 uranium nucleus, energy is not only generated by nuclear fission happened, but two of neutrons also occurs. Since the stimulus of the neutron is double, the next nuclear fission is double, the result is a burst of explosion. It is desirable to find such a explosive reaction in the early stages of research of LENR.


It is expected that there are three paths to generate neutrons from the study of LENR. First, the neutron derived from the collision of electrons and protons. However, the probability of this case is unclear in the conventional physics. Secondly, neutron derived from the collision of deuterium nuclei. In the collision of deuterium nuclei, a 3-helium and a neutron occur or a tritium and a proton occur, a 4-helium is a very few probability (1.0e-6). Third, neutrons from the collision of the electrons and other atomic nuclei or protons and other atomic nuclei, for example, lithium.

(LENRの研究から予想されている中性子の発生経路は、三種類あります。第一に、電子と陽子の衝突に由来する中性子。ただし、従来の物理学では確率は不明。第二に、重水素原子核同士の衝突に由来する中性子。重水素原子核同士の衝突では、4ヘリウムはごく僅かしか発生せず (確率 1.0e-6)、3ヘリウムと中性子、または、三重水素と陽子になります。第三に電子や陽子と他の原子核、例えばリチウムとの衝突に由来する中性子です。)

Once the neutrons are generated, it will easily begin the nuclear reaction with neutrons and other atomic nuclei. A wide variety of nuclear reactions will continue to occur one after another. This is a phenomenon described in a conventional theory.


The mass defect of a nuclear reaction will be the kinetic energy of  a nucleus and a electron or will be gamma rays by the formula of mass and energy, E=mc^2. When the particles moving with high speed is stopped by colliding on other particles, the kinetic energy is emitted as a gamma ray. I am assuming that the majority of the high-speed kinetic energy of a nucleus will soon change into the gamma-ray because LENR is a nuclear reaction inside the solid or the liquid of metal absorbed hydrogen or deuterium with much higher density than a gas-plasma.

(質量とエネルギーの等価公式 E=mc^2に従って、核反応の質量欠損は、発生した原子核や電子の運動エネルギーまたはガンマ線となります。高速の粒子が他の粒子と衝突して停止すると運動エネルギーはガンマ線として放射されます。私は、LENRはガス・プラズマよりはるかに密度の高い金属の固体または液体の内部の核反応のため高速運動エネルギーの大半はガンマ線になると仮定しています。)

Gamma rays will collide with electrons or atomic nuclei near. This is called Compton effect. Electrons are accelerated after the collisions of gamma rays. And they cause the next nuclear reactions. Gamma rays reduces the energy after the collisions. If a nucleus absorbs a gamma ray into itself after the collision, the nucleus will became excited state, but, in many cases,  it emits the same gamma rays after a few milliseconds.


A study of the ash of the nucleus is necessary even in LENR. I expect the ash with a radioactivity comes out in LENR.


5. Use of computer (コンピューターの活用)

The center of study of LENR was the experiment of electrolysis and gas loading for many years. We can only observe from the outside of the apparatus while the experiment. Observation items are amount of heat,  a measurement of the neutron and radiation dose. We make the component analysis of the ash after the end of the experiment. Unfortunately, human beings do not have the technology to measure what kind of nuclear reaction is taking place for each type of isotopes of atoms inside the material of the reactor during the experiment.


And there are already a lot of hypothesis in the field of LENR. But, it does not seem able to verify them in the previous measurement method.


For this reason, it is necessary to calculate the detail of what is happening inside the device using a computer simulation program taking up the knowledge of standard nuclear physics and your new hypothesis of LENR.


We can also test the hypothesis by comparing the prediction of a computer simulation program and the measurement data of experiment.


Oct 24, 2016

JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library)

There are translated English and original Japanese in this article.

I found the important data of nuclear technology. It is called Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library.


Translated excerpts from Nuclear and nuclear reaction (03-06-01-03)(Japanese) <<<
Because the neutron behavior in a nuclear reactor is the most major work of nuclear energy, it is important to know the proportion of nuclear reaction with neutrons and substance. But, the energy of neutron is spread from about 20MeV to about 0.01eV. The probability of the reaction will complexly change. For this reason, It is necessary to prepare the cross-sectional area data of neutron in a wide energy range. To do this, It must be given from experimental data and theoretical considerations that the value of the cross-sectional area should be definitely for each energy. In this way, is is called "Evaluation of nuclear data" to give the value of the cross-sectional area in all of the energy area that is required. There is a file of numerical data obtained and evaluated for the purpose of the design and safety assessment of a nuclear reactor. It is called "Evaluated nuclear data file". "Evaluated nuclear data file"  has been created for the use of nuclear energy in various countries. What are currently recognized as the world's three large files, U.S. ENDF (Evaluated Nuclear Data File), European JEFF (Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion File) and JENDL of Japan (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) >>>

(原子核と核反応 (03-06-01-03) (日本語)からの抜粋 「原子炉等の中性子の振る舞いが主要な働きをする原子力利用では、中性子と物質との核反応の割合を知ることが重要となる。しかし、中性子のエネルギーは約20MeVから0.01eV程度まで広がっており、反応の確率は複雑な変化をする。このため、広いエネルギー範囲で断面積データを用意しておく必要がある。このためには、実験データや理論的な考察から、最も確かであると思われる断面積の値をエネルギー毎に与えなければならない。このように、必要とされる全てのエネルギー領域で断面積の値を与えるようにすることを「核データの評価」といい、評価して得られた数値データをファイル化し、原子炉の設計や安全評価に使えるようにしたものが「評価済み核データファイル」である。「評価済み核データファイル」は、様々な国等で原子力利用のために作成されている。世界三大ファイルとして現在認識されているものは、米国のENDF(Evaluated Nuclear Data File)、欧州のJEFF(Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion File)、それに、日本のJENDL(Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library)である。」)

I have developed a simulation program of the neutron generator when I have not seen this data yet. I had simple assumptions on the nuclear reaction such as the following. The assumption is that almost all of the neutron is absorbed by the nucleus of the surrounding, they will be isotopes with one large mass number, and the isotopes will decay. There is also an assumption that if electrons, protons or deuteriums collide with other atomic nuclei, two particles will become one nucleus. It is necessary to refer the JENDL or otherThere are translated English and original Japanese in this article in order to increase the accuracy of the simulation.


Can neutron be generated by the collide of protons and electrons?

There are translated English and original Japanese in this article. 

Can neutron be generated by the collide of protons and electrons? Yes. But, quantitative detailed data is unknown.


I found a document written in Japanese.  URL is The title is "management of those that are radioactive". The author is a Mr. Kazuyoshi Masumoto of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization.

(日本語で書かれた文書を見つけました。 URLは、 。タイトルは、「放射化物の管理について」。著者は、高エネルギー加速器研究機構の桝本和義さんです。)

It says that there are examples of therapeutic electron linear accelerator, Varian Clinac 2300 C/D.  The device irradiated  on the dummy target of water with an electron beam or X-ray. Acceleration energy(Voltage) is 18 [MeV]. Total irradiation time is 11.1 minute. The number of neutrons is measured as 1.0e5 [count / cm ^ 2 s]  around about 3 [m] of the device from the graph. We can calculate that the total number of neutron is 1.13e12 [count / s]  from the surface area of a sphere. But the ratio of occurrence is not known for the neutron per the  electric current  to accelerate.

(治療用の電子を直線加速する装置、Clinac 2300 C/Dの例があります。装置は、照射のダミーターゲットの水に、電子線またはX線を照射します。加速エネルギー(電圧)は、18MeVです。照射時間は、合計11.1分間です。グラフから装置の周囲3[m]で中性子個数は1.0e5[count/cm^2s]程度が計測されています。球の表面積から中性子総数は、1.13e11[count/s]ですが、加速電流量が不明のため発生の比率が判りません。)

There are also examples in the cyclotron. The accelerated protons collide with the target of the water.
Acceleration energy(Voltage) is 18 [MeV]. Beam current is 21 [μA]. Acceleration power is 378 [W].
This is the input energy flow per second of 2.35e15 [MeV / c ^ 2 s] . Neutron number is measured as 2.5e5 [count / cm ^ 2 s] per second  around 1 [m] of the target. The total number of neutrons is 3.14e10[count/s] about the leaking on the surrounding surface area of a sphere. One neutron will generating energy 0.78 [MeV / c ^ 2] when collapsing itself. The total energy encompassed by the neutron leaking to the surrounding is 2.44e10[MeV/c^2 s] per second. We can obtain the ratio 2.35e15 / 2.44e10 = 96311. Neutron is leaking around with little energy of 1 in 96,311 of the input energy. It is unknown whether all of neutrons leaks around after generated by the proton beam.

(サイクロトロンでの例もあります。陽子を加速しターゲットの水に衝突させます。加速エネルギー(電圧)は、18MeVです。ビーム電流は、21 [μA]です。加速電力は 378[W]です。これは、毎秒にすると 2.35e15[MeV/c^2 s]の入力エネルギー流になります。ターゲットの周囲1[m]で中性子個数は、毎秒にすると 2.5e5[count/cm^2 s]程度が計測されています。球の表面積から周囲に漏れてくる中性子総数は、3.14e10[count/s]です。中性子一個は崩壊すると0.78[MeV/c^2]のエネルギーを発生しますから、周囲に漏れてくる全中性子が包含するエネルギーは、毎秒にすると 2.44e10[MeV/c^2 s]となります。比率2.35e15/2.44e10= 96311をえることができます。入力エネルギーの96311の1というわずかなエネルギーを持つ中性子が周囲にもれています。陽子ビームで発生した中性子のすべてが、周囲に漏れてくるのかどうかは不明です。)

Oct 22, 2016

LENR is the reason of dark matter and dark energy

There are translated English and original Japanese in this article. 

LENR is the reason of dark matter and dark energy

There is a scientific belief that the presence of dark matter in a galaxy and dark energy of the universe from space observation. However, its origin is not known.


There was a long period in which  many stars get to the white dwarfs because of the long period of fusion reaction in the star of the old theory. It was said in the old theory that the lifetime of the universe is shorter than the total lifetime of star in which a star is born to grow as a young sun,  matures as a red giant, becomes old as a white dwarf and finally die as a cold black dwarf. It was the explanation in the old theory for the reason that black dwarf does not exist.


Basic research has proven the existence of LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reactions) in the field of CMNS (Condensed Matter Nuclear Science) . There are some people who expect that the d-d reaction will easily occur in a condensed matter than the conventional theory. There are some people like me who expect that the proton will easily capture an electron in a condensed matter than the conventional theory.


If we will find the detail of low energy nuclear reaction,  it is required to review the theory of nuclear fusion reaction for the stellar, such as the sun. There is a prediction that the fusion reaction of stars may be going to be further accelerated. This will derive the  conclusion that the life of the star is less than the expectation of the old theory. It will recognize that there are a lot of the black dwarfs in a galaxy. This is the explanation of the origin of the dark matter.


There is a famous theory  that our universe begun from the Big Bang. There is an observation fact that the speed of the farther galaxy is faster than the speed of the near galaxy in the expansion of the Big Bang. The acceleration forces called dark energy since we do not know the reason. The the border of big bang is considered to be the end of our universe. It is believed that we can not observe the light from the outside of the border. There is still few people who are thinking of the outside of the border. Now, we can think that there are a lot of dark matter in the space that is spread outside of the boundary of our Big Bang universe. Dark matter does not emit light it only emits gravity. The father galaxy is being accelerated by a stronger gravity of the dark matter in the outside of  Big Bang because it is close to the dark matter in the outside of  Big Bang. This is a candidate for cause of dark energy.


Oct 15, 2016

Review of the neutron generator of KOSHIRYOKU Lab.


(from "KOUSHIRYOKU" to "KOSHIRYOKU" for English people easy to speak. Oct. 13, 2016)

I participated in ICCF20. I announced the simulation results of the neutron generator. I received the criticism from professors, scientists and engineers. I wrote them.  There are also answers that could not be answered on the spot of the presentation for the sake of my poor English.


C1. the neutron is not easily generated in the collision of protons and electrons

A1. Yes. I know that the incidence of neutrons will only get by  the experiment. Now I can only calculate with expected values. I heard it is very difficult to generate a neutron from protons and electrons. But I can't find the document to describe the detail of it. Because there are the beta plus decay and the electron capture in the radioactive decay table,  it seems that there is a possibility to make a neutron.


C2. The cost of facilities  is too high by too high voltage, 0.78[MegaVolt]
(0.78[MegaVolt] の電圧が高すぎて設備コストが高すぎるのでは)

A2. The voltage is high, but current is minimal. So, the power (= voltage * current) is also small in the experiment. It does not matter in a pulsed current. The combination of the usual step-up circuit and the Cockcroft–Walton circuit can achieve 0.78 million volts. You can get 1 million volts by the stun gun at about 200 dollar in the

(電圧は高くとも電流は極小です。実験では電力は少なくてかまいません。パルス電流でかまいません。通常の昇圧回路とコッククロフト-ウォルトン回路の組み合わせで0.78[MegaVolt]を達成てきます。アマゾン.comで 2万円ぐらいで買えるスタンガンは、100万ボルトの出力とされています。)

C3. this is a hot fusion, not a cold fusion because of too high the voltage as 0.78 [MegaVolt]

A3. The temperature (116,000,000 [K]) of the Tomakaku type of hot fusion reactor is converted into only 10,000 [V]. 0.78 [MegaVolt] is 78 times of 10,000 [V]. It will go on the double-digit. I think that one of the reasons of the lack of reproducibility of cold fusion is a too weak stimulus to trigger the reaction. 0.78 [MegaVolt] is equivalent to the mass difference of the neutron and the pair of protons and electrons. It is impossible to make a neutron from from the protons and electrons without this energy because there is a law of conservation of mass and energy. This is a simulation calculation. It is not difficult to give sufficient stimulus that matches the standard physics in the simulation. In addition to the current is very small, it is possible to build the entire device in a small, I believe to be able to experiment at room temperature in the room. I think that there is an energy release by the mass defect in the nucleus scale of the cold fusion at a room temperature experiment as same as the law of physics of the hot fusion.

(実際のトマカク型の熱核融合炉の温度(116,000,000 [K])を電圧に換算するとたったの10,000 [eV]です。0.78[MegaVolt]はその78倍ですから、2桁も大幅に上を行きます。私は、これまでの常温核融合の再現性のないことの原因の一つは、反応の引き金となる刺激が弱すぎたことであると考えています。0.78[MegaVolt]は、陽子と電子の組と中性子の質量差に相当します。質量とエネルギーの保存則からこのエネルギーがないと陽子と電子の組から中性子を作ることはできません。これはシミュレーション計算ですから、既存物理学に合致した十分な刺激を確実に与えることは難しくありません。また電流が極小であるために、装置全体を小型にできるので、常温の室内で実験できると考えています。私は、常温核融合でも原子核スケールでは、熱核融合と同等の質量欠損によるエネルギー解放がされていると考えています。)

C4. The expected collision to cause a nuclear fusion by  high a voltage 0.78 [MegaVolt] does not occur.  The energy of too high a voltage will disappear as heat.

(0.78 [MegaVolt] の高すぎる電圧のエネルギーはすべて熱となって消えて核融合を引き起こす衝突は起きない)

A4. You can specify the probability of heat in the simulation calculation. The correct probability is obly gotten in the real experiment.


C5. Calculation example of the Coulomb barrier of proton and proton collision seems to be olny a 40 [Volt]


A5. There will be a good result in the experiment with the lowe voltage of the 40 [Volt] if true. We notice  the probability of an event is important by the uncertainty principle of the laws of physics. How much probability is the 40 [Volt] for?


C6. Protons can not discharge but Electrons can easy discharge. Protons might be able to discharge if  taking well the position of the electrical ground. Protons will not discharge by the impedance or the resistance of the circuit.


A6. Thanks to the advice. The minimum requirement in the conceptual diagram is the collision of protons and electrons, not the discharge of protons. But if we can get the discharge of protons, it is possible to discharge  deuterium nuclei and to collide of deuterium nuclei on the opposite electrode. It should be realized someday to discharge protons in inexpensive and simple device like this.


C7. Experimental apparatus itself will be able to be build in about $5,000. However measuring device is expensive.


A7. Thanks to the advice. I'm looking for a laboratory that can do the real experiment.


C8. The high voltage electrical engineers has not an experience to absorb the hydrogen into electrode metal.


A8. Thanks to the advice. For example, I think it is necessary to help by the engineers of nickel-metal hydride battery.


C9. Palladium is the best of the metal with hydrogen permeability. The hydrogen permeability of nickel is weaker than palladium. There is not a pure nickel in nickel-metal hydride battery. but there is a layered alloy compound.


A9. Thanks to the advice. Since palladium is an expensive precious metal, we'd better use low-cost nickel.


C10. The collision of deuterium  nuclei each other does not become 4-helium, but, the tritium or 3-helium.

A10. Thanks to the advice. This is a new fact that I learned in the ICCF 20. I had the hypothesis in this simulation as the collision of atomic nuclei and the particles becomes a new nuclear and a mass defect. The reason is that I could not find the organized information of results of collision particles in search of the Internet. If the colliding particles like protons, deuterium nuclei or 4-helium nuclei, have the same positive electricity of the target atomic nuclei, the strong repulsive force will be generated at the time of approaching. The possibility of a head-on collision is very low. They will often collide diagonally. So I can guess that there is a high possibility that division after the collision. It will split into two particles with roughly 3:2 mass ratio as in the fission of uranium and there is a mass defect. I would like to simulation again with this new hypothesis.

(忠告に感謝します。これは、ICCF 20で知り得た新しい事実です。今回のシミュレーションでは、原子核と粒子の衝突は一つの新原子核と質量欠損になるという仮定を置いていました。この仮定を設定した原因は、インターネットの検索では、衝突する粒子の結果についてまとめられた情報がほとんど見つからなかったためです。衝突する粒子が、原子核とおなじ正の電気を帯びる陽子、重水素原子核、4-ヘリウム原子核の場合は、接近時に強い反発力が生じますので正面衝突する可能性は低くなり、斜めに衝突することが多くそのため衝突後に分裂する可能性が高いと推測できます。ウランの核分裂のように、だいたい3:2の質量比率で2つの粒子に分裂しさらに質量欠損も生じるという仮定を置いて、再度シミュレーションしてみたいと思います。)

C11. I do not know the meaning of this simulation


A11. A wide variety of chemical substances will be generated in the combustion of gasoline of  chemical reaction. Also I recognize that nuclear reaction is a very complicated in the same way.  The triggers of reaction of cold fusion is probably a simple reaction of proton or deuterium nuclei and other nuclei. The generated mass defect becomes the energy of kinetic energy or gamma ray. It will cause the following nuclear reactions via the Compton effect. This simulation allows you to simulate all of the nuclear reaction, including from triggers up to the next nuclear reactions. You will be able to make predictions prior to the real experiment. If you see the simulation log, it is impossible to calculate all the nuclear reaction by hand.


Oct 7, 2016


I joined the ICCF20 held in Sendai. The field of Cold fusion(almost equal LENR or CMNS)  is evolving to version 3. Nevertheless, it is still in the basic research level.

(仙台市で開催されたICCF20に参加しました。Cold fusion (訳:常温核融合)の分野は、バージョン3(V3)に進化しつつあります。それでも、まだ基礎研究レベルです。)

V1 Era of electrolysis experiments with palladium electrode.(パラジウム電極での電解実験の時代。)

Reports that nuclear fusion occurs of electrolysis experiment by F&P is the beginning of everything. Makeup can not be almost reproduced, it drew criticism. Electrolysis method was a failure.


V2 Era of loading the hydrogen gas / deuterium gas. (水素ガス/重水素ガスをローデングした時代。)

There was a report of excess heat generation of evidence of a nuclear reaction in gas loading technique. It remains poor reproducibility. But the experiment of Professor Iwamura of Tohoku University has reproducibility. It is that nuclide conversion occurs when to transmit deuterium gas to the palladium film. This is the era that the so-called Cold fusion presence has become clear.

(ガスローデング手法で核反応の証拠の一つとなる過剰熱の発生の報告がありましたが、再現性が乏しいまま。ただし、重水素ガスをパラジウム膜に透過させると核種変換が発生するという東北大の岩村特任教授の実験は再現性があり、いわゆるCold fusionそのものの存在は明確になった時代。)

V3 Era of colliding fusion to accelerate protons of hydrogen nuclei (p), or a deuterium nucleus (d) above 1KV(水素原子核の陽子(p)、あるいは重水素核(d)を1KV以上で加速して衝突融合させる時代)

From the past of the experimental experience and hypothesis, it is need to give stimulation of definite size to nuclear fusion possible nuclei, hydrogen or deuterium. We recognize that there is a need to investigate in detail.


 There were two disappointing reports in ICCF20.


(1) The COP of Hydrogen Hot Tube of Brillouin Energy has been reported as 1.5 now. It should not take a profit for the electric power generation like heat source of the steam turbine in this performance.

(Brillouin EnergyのHydrogen Hot TubeのCOPは1.5と報告されました。この性能では、これを発電用蒸気タービンの熱源として利用すると、採算がとれないはずです。)

(2) University of Missouri has issued a final report. SKINR has no occurrence of excess heat.


Both of the above will mean the end of the gas loading era.


There were two big announcement to tell the beginning of V3. One is "Enhancement of DD Fusion Yield" by Konrad Czerski in Szczecin University in Poland. Another is "Low-energy cooperative DD collision" by Yuki Honda in Tohoku University in Japan. It is not very good that the experiments require expensive equipments. It is becoming more than the cost that individuals can experiment.

(V3の始まりを告げる二つの大きな発表は、ポーランドのSzczecin大学のKonrad Czerski氏が発表したEnhancement of DD Fusion Yield と 東北大学のYuki Honda 氏が発表した Low-energy cooperative DD collision です。これらの報告から、判るあまり良く無いことは、より高額な装置を用いる実験に移行しつつあり、私のような個人が実験できる費用レベルを超えつつあるということです。)

So, when will the commercialization of LENR do? (1) Both the device and the fuel are low prices as it can be used in the home.  (2)  There is no concern of depletion of fuel. (3) All of the device , fuel and waste are safe. All the people of the world will become rich by achieving these three pieces of the goal. But no one knows when. It is necessary to continue the challenge in the future.


Sep 28, 2016





また、原子力発電所に不当に掛ける税金(電源立地促進対策交付金や核燃料税 )も他産業との公平性のために廃止しなければいけません。

実際、東芝には小型ナトリウム冷却高速炉4Sの研究があるようですし、GE日立ニュークリア・エナジー には、革新的小型モジュール原子炉PRISM(Power Reactor Innovative Small Module)の研究があるようです。

Sep 21, 2016















Aug 14, 2016













タレントの芸名が、商標登録され元の芸能事務所に所有されていた場合は、独立したタレントはその芸名を継続使用することができません。トラブル防止には、(1) 芸名を本名にしない事、(2) 契約終了時に芸名をどのように扱うかを契約書に明記しておく必要があります。芸名とはブランド名ですから、所有権や利用権を移転するには高額で買い取ることになります。



また、アメリカでは、反トラスト法(アメリカの独占禁止法)、タレント・エージェンシー法、SAG-AFTRAの規定で会社側の機能分割が徹底しており、エージェント会社(出演契約(=ブッキング)を取り付ける役割)、マネジメント会社(タレントの技能を磨き世話をする役割)、プロダクション(映画・番組・CM・舞台を演出・制作する会社)が別れているそうです(参考 鈴木亜美、北野誠…なぜ芸能人は突然“干される”のか?芸能界を歪める芸能プロの“政治”)。エージェント・マネジメント・プロダクションの分離は、日本国憲法で、政府の権力が、立法・行政・司法の三権に分立させられて互いに牽制しあうようになっている構造に、似ていると思いませんか。






Aug 10, 2016



日本国民の皆さん、中国の武力挑発に決して乗せられず、戦わずして勝つことが最上で必勝の策です。 (参考 : 尖閣に出没する中国船に戦わずして勝つ)


発信の方法は、簡単です。以下に紹介する外務省の英語のページを開いてそこにある "Tweet"ボタン や "like"ボタンをクリックすればいいのです。


Intrusion of Chinese government vessels into Japan’s territorial waters surrounding the Senkaku Islands August 8, 2016 

Intrusion of Chinese government vessels into Japan’s territorial waters surrounding the Senkaku Islands August 7, 2016

Intrusion of Chinese government vessels into Japan’s territorial waters surrounding the Senkaku Islands August 7, 2016

Japanese Territory

About the Senkaku Islands






Intrusion of Chinese government vessels into Japan

Despite Japan’s repeated protests, while seven Chinese Coast Guard vessels have not exited Japan’s contiguous zone.

Intrusion of Chinese government vessels into Japan’s territorial waters surrounding the Senkaku Islands August 8, 2016

Intrusion of Chinese government vessels into Japan’s territorial waters surrounding the Senkaku Islands August 7, 2016

Intrusion of Chinese government vessels into Japan’s territorial waters surrounding the Senkaku Islands August 7, 2016

Trends in Chinese Government and Other Vessels in the Waters Surrounding the Senkaku Islands, and Japan's Response - Records of Intrusions of Chinese Government and Other Vessels into Japan's Territorial Sea - August 5, 2016


尖閣諸島周辺海域における中国公船及び中国漁船の活動状況について 平成 28 年8月9日

中国公船による我が国尖閣諸島周辺の領海への侵入等 平成28年8月8日

中国公船による我が国尖閣諸島周辺の領海への侵入 平成28年8月8日


Aug 9, 2016


コストコは、同一労働同一賃金、アルバイトも社員も、店舗従業員は、時給1250円、換算月収 22万円、換算年収264万円。


参考 コストコが管理職以外「全員時給制」なワケ

Aug 8, 2016




前提 : 独立国家として国民を守り国家を維持するためには、領土を守り切らなければならない。

環境 : 国内法にすぎない憲法は中国に対して無力。国連憲章の敵国条項の罠(日本が先制攻撃したら無制限に攻撃してよい)により、日本は攻撃されてからの反撃(=自衛)しかできない。。

結論 : 中国の古代の兵法書「孫子」に従い最上の策「戦わずして勝つ」を目指すしかない。また信用を維持するため正義の立場を常に保つ。民間は、日本政府の指示を待たずに、自発的に行動を開始したほうがよい。また、「戦わずして勝つ」作戦は、即効性がないため普段からの粘り強い取り組みが必要になる。

(1) 友好国を増やす





(2) 正義の宣伝









(3) 経済関係の限定








(4) 専守防衛





Aug 3, 2016





参考 : 「セルフ・ダンピング」で苦境に陥るベネズエラの食料輸入事情







Jul 13, 2016
















Jun 26, 2016


democracy(デモクラシー) という名詞の英英辞書の第一の意味は、"a system of government in which every citizen in the country can vote to elect its government officials."(Longman  Dictionaryより) あるいは" system of government in which all the people choose their leaders, or a country with this system"(Cambridge Dictionaryより)。その意味は、「国民全員で選挙によって政治家を選ぶ制度」ということ。これを日本語では民主主義と訳していますが、「民主主義では誤訳であり民主制が正確な訳」との指摘があります。その通りだと思います。



  • 投票に行って悔いる方が、投票に行かずに悔いるよりマシだ
  • 大量の移民は、国民の感情を害し争いを生み出す悪である
  • 明日の為替と株価は判らないが、長期的には楽観するしかない













Apr 28, 2016


low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) の開発で先頭ランナーであるはずの、Andrea Rossi氏のE-Catが、出資者の IH社と裁判沙汰になっているようです。

IH社は、Andrea Rossi氏の実験装置は成功していないと主張しているが、別のLENR装置の開発をしている模様。

Andrea Rossi氏は、自分が元々保持していち技術が、IH社にコピーされていると主張している模様。


詳しくは、こちら(In Cold Fusion 2.0, Who's Scamming Whom?)をみてください。

Apr 14, 2016



























Apr 7, 2016

1MW E-Catの第三者テストが成功で完了


Press Release - Cold Fusion (LENR) Verified - Inventor Sues Industrial Heat, LLC.

このニュースによると1MW E-Catの一年間の連続試験での平均COPは6だそうです。

また、「投資元がE-CATから手を引いた」と以前に紹介しましたが、この記事の最後にもなにやら、Leonardo Corporationと Industrial Heatの間のライセンスや特許権などのもめ事があるようです。

Mar 19, 2016


次のリンクで英文の本"Field Detection Technologies for Explosives"で説明が見つかった。
Google ありがとう。


15.5 Neutron Generation
15.5.1 Neutron Generation via Nuclear Fission
15.5.2 Neutron Generation via Nuclear Reaction
15.5.3 Neutron Generation via an Accelerator



岩村康弘 さんの記事の紹介



検索結果 9
1特開2014-070986核種変換方法及び核種変換装置三菱重工業株式会社2014年04月21日特願2012-2167092012年09月28日G21G 7/00
2特開2013-178225核種変換方法及び核種変換装置三菱重工業株式会社2013年09月09日特願2012-2011962012年09月13日G21G 7/00
3特開2013-170982核種変換装置及び核種変換方法三菱重工業株式会社2013年09月02日特願2012-0363102012年02月22日G21G 7/00
4特開2011-149863核種変換装置及び核種変換方法三菱重工業株式会社2011年08月04日特願2010-0121772010年01月22日G21G 1/00
5特開2011-064530核種変換装置及び核種変換方法三菱重工業株式会社2011年03月31日特願2009-2142152009年09月16日G21G 1/12
6特開2010-066114核種変換装置及び核種変換方法三菱重工業株式会社2010年03月25日特願2008-2324242008年09月10日G21G 1/04
7特開2005-292154核種変換装置及び核種変換方法三菱重工業株式会社2005年10月20日特願2005-1429892005年05月16日G21G 1/04
8特開2005-292151核種変換装置及び核種変換方法三菱重工業株式会社2005年10月20日特願2005-1429862005年05月16日G21G 1/04
9特開2002-202392核種変換装置及び核種変換方法三菱重工業株式会社2002年07月19日特願2001-2018752001年07月03日G21B 1/00











核融合炉を成立させる最適な材料 2005年



とにかく、中性子が足りないので、9Be(ベリリウム stable で天然の存在率は100%)中性子を照射して、中性子を倍増させようとかである。

あれ、でも、9Be + n -> 10Be であり、 10Be は、半減期139万年、ベータ-崩壊で、10B(ホウ素 stale)になるはず。9Beに中性子だけでは足りず、過剰なエネルギーもあれば、論文の反応がおきるのだろうか、、、わからないなあ。解決は、英語のWikiでできた。"Some reactions are only possible with fast neutrons:","9Be + n → 2α + 2n can contribute some additional neutrons in the beryllium neutron reflector of a nuclear weapon."とあった。予想通りである。








Ni-59(半減期7.6万年)が20MeVγ線の(γ, p)反応(γ線により、陽子(p)がはじき出される)でCo-58(70日)になる。

Ni-63(半減期100年)が20MeVγ線の(γ, p)反応(γ線により、陽子(p)がはじき出される)でCo-62(1.5分)になる。


核融合反応を促進する液体 Li 超音波キャビテーション

核融合反応を促進する液体 Li 超音波キャビテーション
700 万度にも及ぶ高温度の重陽子プラズマは、

Mar 18, 2016


古い資料だと思いますが、常温核融合研究の現状 (上) 小島英夫 が見つかったので紹介しておきます。

知らなかったことは、「背景中性子」が地上では観測されることです。100 [個/(m^2 s)]だそうです。 

Mar 17, 2016


第 39 回 STS 研究会 2013/12/19 伊藤泰男
「常温核融合」 / 低エネルギー核反応の現状

検索によれば、伊藤泰男 さんは多分東大教授だと思います。





Mar 16, 2016


Industrial Heat’s E-Cat Exit,  March 10, 2016 – By Steven B. Krivit – (Industrial Heat has apparently terminated its relationship with businessman Andrea Rossi. ...)


どうやら、 Andrea Rossi 氏が主張していた性能をクリアできなかったから、投資元のIndustrial Heatが、手を引いたようです。

技術的内容はまったく不明なので、理由もはっきりしません。投資額は、$11,555,050 (10億円ぐらい)だったようです。


Mar 5, 2016



世界の名目GDP 国別ランキング統計・推移(IMF)(2014)


米国 536人
中国 213人
ドイツ 103人
インド 90人
ロシア 88人
イギリス 53人
フランス 47人
韓国 30人
台湾 33人
日本 24人
































憲法は、9条だけが大切なのではない。「第十三条  すべて国民は、個人として尊重される。生命、自由及び幸福追求に対する国民の権利については、公共の福祉に反しない限り、立法その他の国政の上で、最大の尊重を必要とする。 第十四条  すべて国民は、法の下に平等であつて、人種、信条、性別、社会的身分又は門地により、政治的、経済的又は社会的関係において、差別されない。」の意味を公正に考えないといけない。