May 21, 2013

E-Cat第三者試験結果 PART1:12月のTEST(その7)



One must keep in mind that the thermal camera does not measure an object's temperature directly: with the help of input optics, radiation emitted from the object is focused onto an infrared detector which generates a corresponding electrical signal.

サーマルカメラが直接オブジェクトの温度を測定していないことを心に留めておく必要があります : 入力光学系の助けを借りて、物体から放出される放射は、対応する電気信号を生成する赤外線検出器上に集束される。

Digital signal processing then transforms the signal into an output value proportional to the object temperature.


Finally, the temperature result is shown on the camera display.


The camera software derives the temperature of objects by means of an algorithm which takes several parameters and corrective factors into account, e.g. user settings for emissivity and detector temperature, taken automatically by a sensor on the lower part of the camera itself.

Moreover, every Optris camera-and-optics set has its own calibration file supplied by the manufacturer (Ref. [6]).

The image provided by the camera shows only the lower part of the E-Cat HT: as no other IR cameras were available, the same temperatures measured there were held good for the upper half of the device as well, and were used for subsequent calculations.

カメラによって提供される画像には、E-キャットHTの下部のみを示しています : 他のIRカメラは入手できなかったとして、そこで測定された同じ温度は、同様に、デバイスの上半分のために展開して良かった、さらに、その後の計算に使用された。

We are aware that the effect of convection weighs differently according to whether you consider the top or the bottom part of the object.


From this point of view, the temperature values by means of the frame setup chosen for positioning the camera should be the ones least affected by convective dispersion.


We realize that convection has a - 8 - different effect on the top of the object compared to the bottom of it. 

私達は次が分かりました、対流がひとつから 8つの異なる効果を、その下部に比べて物体の上に、持つことをです

Therefore, the temperature values by means of the frame setup chosen for positioning the camera should be the ones 
least affected by convective dispersion. 


This choice, however, leads to a heavy penalty in the calculation of the average surface temperature of the E-Cat HT: as a matter of fact, in the frames associated with the setup, the shadows of the two metal struts, and of the insulating materials placed under the device to support it, are clearly visible.


These two blacked-out areas negatively distort the calculation of the surface temperature and prevent a proper view of the underlying emitting surfaces.


To overcome this problem, it was decided to divide the entire image of the IR camera into a progressively greater number of areas, for which average temperature values for the entire duration (96 hrs) of the test were calculated.


Subsequently, these values were raised to the 4th power, and then averaged together to obtain a single value to be assigned to the E-Cat HT.


By this process, the blacked-out areas are actually considered as pertaining to the surface of the ECat HT, thereby underestimating the energy emitted.

このプロセスによって、ブラックアウト領域は、実際には、ECAT HTの表面に関連すると考えられる、それによって、放出されるエネルギーを過小評価する。

It was decided to proceed in this manner in order to obtain a lower limit for emitted energy based solely on collected data, without making arbitrary assumptions that might have led to errors by overestimation.


The image obtained from the IR camera covers an area of 160 x 41 pixels and was progressively divided into 10, 20 and 40 areas, following the following criterion: in the first case, 10 areas of 16 x 41 pixels; in the second, 20 areas of 8 x 41 pixels; finally, in the third, 40 areas of 4 x 41 pixels.

IRカメラから得られる画像は、160×41ピクセルの領域をカバーし、徐々に10、20および40の領域に分割した、次の基準を次のにする、最初のケースで、16×41ピクセルの10領域; 第二に、8×41ピクセルの20領域; 最後に、第三に、4×41ピクセルの40領域。

Fig. 8: The area occupied by the E-Cat HT was first divided into 10 parts, then into 20, and finally into 40 parts.


For each of these the average temperature was measured.

Above: 20-area division of the E-Cat HT image.
上:E-キャットHT画像の 20エリアの分割。

The thermal profiles on the right refer to the two horizontal lines on the camera image: in the profiles, the two temperature dips corresponding to the metal struts are clearly visible.


Below: 40-area division of the E-Cat HT image.

The red horizontal line crossing the image is due to a small crack in the ceramic outer surface caused by mechanical stress probably due to a previous thermal shock.