May 21, 2013

E-Cat第三者試験結果 PART1:12月のTEST(その6)



Calculating the power emitted by radiation
Planck's Law expresses how the monochromatic emissive power of a black body varies as a function of its absolute temperature and wavelength;


integrating this over the whole spectrum of frequencies, one obtains the total emissive power (per unit area) of a black body, through what is known as Stefan-Boltzmann’s Law:


where σ indicates Stefan-Boltzmann's constant, equal to 5.67・10-8

ここで σは、ステファン・ボルツマン定数を示す、5.67 ^ 10-8 [W/m2K4] に等しい、
In the case of real surfaces, one must also take emissivity (ε) into account.


ε expresses the ratio between the energy emitted from the real surface, and that which would be emitted by a black body having the same temperature.

The formula then becomes:

where ε may vary between 0 and 1, the latter value being the one assumed for a black body.


As it was not possible to measure the emissivity of the coating used in this analysis, it was decided to conservatively assume a value of ε = 1, thereby considering the E-Cat HT as equivalent to a black body.


This value was then input in the thermal imagery software, which allows the user to modify some of the parameters, such as ambient temperature and emissivity, even after having completed the recordings.


The camera software then uses the new settings to recalculate the temperature values assigned to the recorded images.


It was therefore possible to determine the E-Cat HT's emitted thermal power on the basis of surface temperature values that were never overestimated with respect to effective ones.

The veracity of this statement may be proven by an example where we see what happens when one assigns a value lower then 1 to ε: in fig. 7, the thermal image of the E-Cat HT has been divided into 40 areas.

この文の信憑性は、εに1より低い値を代入するときに何が起こるかを、我々が見るという例によっても、証明することができる: 図7、E-キャットHTの熱画像は40の領域に分割されている。

Emissivity has been set to = 1 everywhere, except in two areas (Nos. 18 and 20), where it is set to 0.8 and 0.95, respectively.


The temperature which the IR camera assigns to the two areas is 564.1 °C and 511.7 °C, respectively  these values being much higher than those of the adjacent areas.

It is therefore obvious that by assigning a value of 1 to ε in to every area, we are in fact performing a conservative measurement: this is a necessary precaution, given the lack of information on the real emissivity value of the E-Cat HT.


Fig. 7. This image exemplifies the effect of emissivity on the determination of temperatures.


The E-Cat HT has been divided in 40 areas; in areas 18 and 20 emissivity has been set to = 0.8 and 0.95, respectively, whereas in all the remaining areas ε has been set to = 1.

E-キャットHTを40領域に分割; 領域18および20は、放射率=0.8及び0.95に設定されている中で、それぞれ、残りのすべての領域でε=1に設定されているのてある。

Measured temperatures appear to be higher in areas 18 e 20 with respect to those recorded in the other areas.

測定された温度は、他の領域で記録されたものに関して領域18 E 20で高くなるように見える。

If the lower values for ε were extended to all areas, this would lead to a higher estimate of irradiated energy density.


For our calculations, therefore  in view of the fact that the effective value of ε was not available for our test, and that it was felt desirable to avoid any arbitrary source of overestimation  ε was left set to = 1 in all areas.

我々の計算では、εの実効値は、我々のテストのために利用できなかったという事実を考慮すると、それ故、さらに、過大評価のあらゆる任意の源を避けることが望ましいと考えられたので、 εは、すべての領域で =1 に設定されたまま残っていた。