Oct 28, 2012

How to make LENR(cold fusion) reactor

(English version 8)

LENR is the "low-energy nuclear reactions".
LENR is the new alias of cold fusion.
The principle of LENR is easy enough to understand even in high school.
(This document will be updated.)

1. Reaction formula column to the underlying

(a)[Ionization1] H2 + Discharge => 2 p+ + 2 e-

(b)[Neutron production] p+ + e- + 0.78MeV => n + Electron-neutrino

(c)[Neutron absorption] n + X => Y(Excited state)

(d)[γ decay] Y(Excited state) => Y(Ground state) + γ (Average > 0.2MeV)

(e)[β decay] Y(Ground state) => Z + e- + 0.78MeV + Anti-electron-neutrino

[H : Hydrogen]
[p : Proton, + Charged]
[e : Electron, - Charged]
[n: Neutron, 0 Charged]
[X: Some nuclei]
[Y: Some nuclei(Atomic number is the same as X)]
[Z: Some nuclei(Atomic number is one greater than X)]
[eV, MeV: electron volt, mega electron volt]
[Discharge: Hydrogen molecule ionization energy (15.4 eV) Hydrogen atom  ionization energy(13.6 eV)]
[γ: gamma rays, This is produced energy from the system]
[0.78MeV: Energy of neutron production(the kinetic/accidental-concentrated-thermal energy of the particle acceleration, or gamma ray feedback) and beta decay(gamma ray). This energy circulates((e)->(b)) in the system.]

2. Overcoming the Coulomb barrier

This article is a modification of the theory Widom-Larsen.

In particular, I was more realistic explanation to overcome the Coulomb barrier.

Let's answers to the "miracle of three Cold Fusion" of Haizenga.

[Miracle #1] the mystery of how the Coulomb barrier is penetrated

Column reaction formula (b) [neutron production] is the Coulomb barrier. Its size is 0.78MeV.

Once it exceeds the Coulomb barrier, normally, the subsequent reaction formula, ((c),(d),(e)), occurs.

In other words, the neutron is absorbed into the nucleus of somewhere.

If you have a left neutron which is not absorbed, but It will beta-decay in about 10 minutes.

Beta decay of the neutron reaction formula is the same as the last(e).

(f)[β decay] n => p+ + e- + 0.78MeV + Anti-electron-neutrino

In other words, make a gamma-ray 0.78MeV.

After all, at the end of the reaction, the 0.78MeV gamma ray comes out.

And the gamma rays of 0.78MeV we will be also changing a proton and an electron to a neutron in the vicinity.

In other words, the gamma ray is being feedback to the reaction formula column (b).

With that said, and once overcome the Coulomb barrier, you can overcome the rest in succession.

Therefore, even if contingent, even inevitable, if the first ignition occurs, its OK.

I can not perform the detailed calculations because I am not a physicist.
However, I can expect the actual Coulomb barrier is lower due to the tunnel effect.

Neutron generating tube is commercially available in Japan. Ion energy at this time is only 0.1 MeV, but neutrons occurs.

If the proton is excited, the probability of electron capture is much better.

Electron capture is the fact that has been confirmed by the experiment in 1937.

There is a best example of the tunnel effect. HH fusion occurs beyond the Coulomb barrier in the center of the Sun at only 15 million k.

You do not need to stand up as Don Quixote to the Coulomb barrier. I expect that Smart Cold fusion use the tunnel effect, etc.

[Miracle #2] the lack of strong neutron emissions

Because it is not a nuclear fusion reaction D + D, there is no strong neutron.

Neutrons are produced in collisions of protons and electrons.

The kinetic energy of the neutron is about the kinetic energy of the particles in the surrounding area.

[Miracle #3] the lack of strong emission of gamma or x-rays

Because it is not a nuclear fusion reaction D + D, there is no powerful gamma rays.

It is a strength of about up to 1MeV.
This is also expected to be re-used to generate neutrons, and rarely come out of the system.

Remains is gamma rays of nuclei gamma decay.
Is a strength of about up to 1MeV gamma decay gamma rays as well.

Gamma rays about up to 1MeV  is scattered and absorbed by the free electrons and protons in a high rate.

The reason is a phenomenon of Transparent to radiation of the big bang theory.

When the universe was young, in white-hot fog of hydrogen plasma, Gamma can not go straight.

plasma electrons have an effect to just cover gamma beam up to 1MeV, it is almost same as the mass of an electron.

Therefore, I'm assuming gamma rays to be measured less.

I think that it is very similar that high-energy neutrons generated in the fission reactor is scattered and shielded by the proton of the hydrogen nuclei of light water.

3. Method of neutron production

3.1 Conventional Method

Neutrons are created by a method similar to the synchrotron.

(a) In a magnetic field, the protons and electrons accelerated rotation.
(b) Protons and electrons is opposite the direction of rotation.
(c) Gives the kinetic energy of the protons and electrons than 0.78MeV.
(d) Produce neutrons by colliding protons and electrons front.
(e) Protons and electrons is not head-on collision, they return to the hydrogen atom.
(f) Hydrogen atom is ionized again. Accelerated rotation starts again.
(g) Neutron is absorbed by the surrounding nuclei when lose the movement speed.

3.2 Innovative method

Neutrons are created by collisions of high-temperature nickel nano powder with adsorbed protons.

One of the nickel nano-powder contains approximately one million individual nickel atoms.

Adsorbed protons in this nano-powder.

Heated to nearly 1,000 degrees absolute temperature for nickel nano powder.

Thermal energy of about 1000 degrees absolute temperature nickel atoms is  around 1 eV.

In other words, the thermal energy of the particles of nickel powder consisting of one million atoms is 1MeV.

The high temperature powder particles head-on collision.

You can just wait for a collision accidentally left untreated them.

Float in the powder magnetic and electric fields. Collide with it.

Ultrasonic vibration will induce a collision.

By the impact force of 1MeV, by accident, the neutrons are created from protons and electrons on the tip of particles.

As it can be seen from the reaction formula columns ((b) and (e)), in the surrounding area, beta decay gamma rays will makes protons and electrons into neutrons.

Thus, beta decay gamma rays are rarely go out of the system. Gamma rays are not nearly measured.

The classical experiment that is electrolysis of heavy water on the surface of a palladium (Pd) electrode is not good for making many neutrons.

Like a fire in a flint, it is necessary to insert a twist something.

4 Warning

There are pros and cons to everything.
There is no exception on LENR(cold fusion).

4.1 Advantage

Extremely low manufacturing cost.
Fuel cost is very inexpensive.
Operation control is easy.
It is do not produce a large amount of nuclear waste as much as thermonuclear fusion reactors and fission reactors.
It is never explode large  as fission reactor (Fukushima, Chernobyl).
It is not an impossible dream on the ground as thermonuclear fusion reactor.
It theoretically can not be diverted to nuclear bomb.

4.2 Shortcoming

Because nuclear energy, it is inevitable that nuclear waste out in principle.
The type and amount of nuclear waste, is still unclear.
In order to know the type and amount of nuclear waste, it is necessary at least 10 years of continuous operation evaluation.
Theoretically, artificial neutron irradiation can be used to convert the nuclei. However, it is need a very high cost on separation and purification, the system has no reality.

(Japanese version 8)

常温核融合炉(LENR reactor)の作り方

LENRは、"low-energy nuclear reactions"です。

1. 基本となる反応式列

(a)[電離1] H2 + 放電 => 2 p+ + 2 e-

(b)[中性子生成] p+ + e- + 0.78MeV => n + 電子ニュートリノ

(c)[中性子吸収] n + X => Y(励起状態)

(d)[γ崩壊] Y(励起状態) => Y(基底状態) + γ (平均 > 0.2MeV)

(e)[ベータ崩壊] Y(基底状態) => Z + e- + 0.78MeV + 反電子ニュートリノ

[H : 水素]
[p : 陽子、+に帯電]
[e : 電子、-に帯電]
[n: 中性子、電荷0]
[X: ある原子核]
[Y: ある原子核(Xと同じ原子番号)]
[Z: ある原子核(Xより一つ大きい原子番号)]
[eV, MeV: 電子ボルト(electron volt), mega electron volt]
[放電: 水素分子電離エネルギー (15.4 eV), 水素原子電離エネルギー (13.6 eV)]
[γ: ガンマ線、系から生成されたエネルギー]
[0.78MeV: 中性子生成(粒子加速の運動エネルギーまたは偶発したナノ粒子の濃縮熱エネルギー、またはフィードバックされるベータ崩壊ガンマ線)とベータ崩壊のエネルギー。系の中で循環((e)->(b))する。]

2. クーロン障壁の克服

この資料は、Widom-Larsen 理論を修正したものです。









(f)[β decay] n => p+ + e- + 0.78MeV + Anti-electron-neutrino







中性子発生管が日本で市販されています。このときのイオンエネルギーは僅か 0.1 MeVですが、中性子が発生します。

















3. 中性子生成の方法

3.1 伝統的方法


(a) 磁場で、陽子と電子を加速回転する。
(b) 陽子と電子は、互いに逆の回転方向となる。
(c) 陽子と電子に0.78MeV以上の運動エネルギーを与える。
(d) 陽子と電子を正面衝突させて中性子を作る。
(e) 陽子と電子が正面衝突しないと、水素原子に戻ることもある。
(f) 水素原子は再度電離してまた加速回転が始まる。
(g) 中性子は運動速度を失い周囲の原子核に吸収される。

3.2 革新的方法





絶対温度1000度程度のニッケル原子の熱エネルギーは、1 eV前後となる。






衝突先端にある陽子と電子が、偶然に 1MeV の衝撃力を受けて中性子となる。





4. 警告