Nov 1, 2016

What can we research about LENR?

There are translated English and original Japanese in this article.

What can we research about LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reactions)?

(LENR (Low Energy Nuclear Reactions)について研究できることは何か)

One of the goals of LENR researchers is to develop an inexpensive commercial reactor with an easier nuclear reaction than the thought in the conventional thermal nuclear fusion technology.


It has been found there were more nuclear reactions by a stimulus at the contact surface between hydrogen (or deuterium) and metal, or, by a stimulus to absorb metal with hydrogen (or deuterium)  in the results of the past experimental studies of LENR than the prediction of the conventional theory.


It has been known that catalysts accelerate a chemical reaction in a chemical process. The study of LENR is an attempt to find materials or methods like catalysts also in nuclear reactions.


It is limited to study in the view of the accumulation of technology with the human beings.

  1. Study of contact and absorbing method (接触・吸蔵方法の研究)
  2. Study of material (材料の研究)
  3. Study of stimulation method (刺激方法の研究)
  4. Study of reaction volume (反応量の研究)
  5. Use of computer (コンピューターの活用)
1. Study of contact and absorbing method (接触・吸蔵方法の研究)

There are three systems of a contact or absorbing of a metal with hydrogen.


(a) Electrolysis method in a solution(電解液での電気分解方式)

Research state : Pummeled
Advantage :  an inexpensive device which anyone can experiment with
Problem  :  The lack of reproducibility, the electrolytic solution will be boiling in the Celsius 100 ℃ or more.

(研究状態 : 停滞している
長所 : 誰でも実験できる安価な装置
問題点 : 再現性の欠如、摂氏100℃以上では電解液が沸騰してしまう)

(b)Gas loading method (ガスローディング法)

(The contact method between a metal wire or a metal nano-powder and hydrogen gas, deuterium gas)


Research state : Pummeled
Advantage :  The scale of the device which can experiment in the laboratory of the University
Problem  :  Excess heat is too small. A small volume of the nuclear reaction area from the device structure. The stimulus is too weak to be supplied to the hydrogen nuclei. It does not give a direct stimulus on the metal surface by the mechanism. There is a question to keep the shape of metal nano powder in a practical use for many days.

(研究状態 : 停滞している
長所 : 大学の研究所で実験できる装置規模
問題点 : 過剰熱発熱量が少なすぎる、装置構造から核反応領域の体積が少ない、水素原子核に与える刺激が弱すぎる、機構上金属表面に直接刺激を与えていない、実用時に金属ナノパウダーの形状維持に疑問)

(c)Continuous hydrogen supply to the hydrogen-absorbing metal and discharge in vacuum (水素吸蔵金属へ連続的水素供給と真空での放電方式)

Research state : not started yet
The advantage to be expected : It can be satisfied at all times in a metal with a high concentration of hydrogen. A large volume of nuclear reaction area. The electrode withstands the strong stimulus by the solid metal blank. A vacuum can be kept suitable for the super-high voltage discharge to continue to suck the inside of the apparatus. Similar small apparatus scale as same as the gas loading method.
Expected problems : There is no convinced prediction of  the amount of generation of neutron or helium.

(研究状態 : 未着手
予想される長所 : 金属内を高濃度の水素で常時満たすことが可能のため核反応領域の体積が大きい、電極は金属塊を想定しており強い刺激に耐えられる、装置内を吸引し続けることで超高圧放電に適した真空を維持できる、ガスローディング法と同様の小型の装置規模
予想される問題点 : 中性子やヘリウムの発生量がうまく予測できない)

2. Study of material(材料の研究)

There is a sea of free electrons responsible for conductivity in solid or liquid metal. When protons or the nucleus of  deuterium blend into the sea of free electrons, you may get a higher concentrated sea of  protons than the gas-plasma. A higher concentrated sea of  electrons and protons has been assumed as a root cause of the higher rate of nuclear reaction more than the conventional theory. There are a lot of hypothesis to explain the phenomenon of LENR. However, we get low reproducibility of the phenomenon in the experiment. Even if high reproducibility, the amount of reaction is extremely small. The hypothesis is just a hypothesis.


They use a hydrogen atom or a deuterium atom in the many studies of LENR. It is better to use low cost hydrogen available everywhere instead of expensive deuterium.


Hydrogen : Cheap, abundant. It can be easily created  from the water.
Deuterium: expensive, however, there is no fear of depletion.

(水素 : 安価、豊富。水から簡単に作成・入手できる
重水素 : 高価、ただし、枯渇の心配はない)

It is also better to use low cost metalic material available everywhere.


Palladium: very expensive, rare article
Lithium: expensive, enough presence
Nickel: medium prices, enough presence
Iron: Cheapest, there is no fear of depletion.
Aluminum: significantly cheap, there is no fear of depletion.


We can consider three shapes in metal, nano powder, solid mass, liquid.


Nano-powder metal : There is often the initial chemical reaction heat since the reaction surface area is large in the gas loading method. It is is considered that nuclear reaction is also initially satisfactory. As the nuclear reaction proceeds, if the powder will melt with high heat, the surface area is reduced, the stimulation of the hydrogen is reduced at the same time, we can predict that nuclear reaction is also reduced. Nano powder is expected to be toxic to the human body.


Solid mass metal: There is a wire shape metal with the experiment in the gas loading method. We know that the amount of heat is generated small. You can guess the reason that the surface area of the wire is too small for the purpose of contact with hydrogen. Gas loading method will not be suitable for solid mass metal. It will be need to fill hydrogen in the interior of the metal.


Liquid metal: The metal with a low melting point is supposed to be liquid in the reactor at the time of actual operation. Liquid needs to be placed in the container. Liquid metal absorbed hydrogen also will be available in the method of continuous hydrogen supply to the hydrogen-absorbing metal and discharge in vacuum.


3. Study of stimulation method (刺激方法の研究)

The ignition of a gasoline engine is done by an electric spark. It has been considered necessary to stimulate the nucleus for an ignition even in LENR. However, there are only little ways in the state of the art of the human race.


The sun is a nuclear fusion reactor of natural. The center temperature of the sun is 15 million degrees and it is really high temperature. However, it is the kinetic energy of particles accelerated in just 1293 [V]. But the central density of the sun is 156 [g / cm3]. It is about 10 times denser than the metal on the earth. Nuclear fusion of the sun is expected to last about 10 billion years. It is a very low probability that a turn only comes once in 10 billion years for the one of the protons in the sun. In other words, the nuclear reactions in the sun is very slow because very few of the protons to participate. It is a phenomenon that is described as a probability in the tunnel effect of the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics.


The density of the metal on the earth is too lower than one-tenth of the central density of the sun. If it, there is an expectation that the strength of the stimulus should be greater than ten times of 1293[V] of the sun for each nucleus in order to hold the probability of a nuclear reaction as same as the sun. However, the stimulation of experiments in LENR  has been weak until now.


If we will be able to improve the probability of reproduction of LENR phenomenon, many scientists will be interested in LENR. The progress of the research will be faster by more scientists. We now need the experimental apparatus to give a strong stimulus for each nucleus.


Heat : A nuclear reaction can not be expected at all with the temperature at which the metal material does not melt and evaporation.


Light: A nuclear reaction can not be expected with the photon of about ultraviolet light which energy is the order of a few eV.


Laser light : Laser light can heat orbital electrons of a macro area in a nucleus scale. The energy of one photon is approximately only several electron Volt in the current laser technology. It is not enough to cause a nuclear reaction. Ultra-high heating is almost impossible by the laser beam in a nucleus scale. However, it is possible that a highly dense light such as laser will continue to supply the totally large momentum to particles by colliding photons in many and much times. But, the implosion technology is incomplete by irradiating all a laser beam at once directed from the periphery to the center point in terms of efficiency and precision control. It is famous that the scale is too huge of the experimental reactor that really exists using a laser implosion nuclear fusion. Now, it seems impossible to reduce the size of the device.


Gas discharge : A method of promoting the plasma by discharge in hydrogen or deuterium gas. It can be expected that there is a very small probability in case of strong collision to cause a nuclear reaction by nuclei moving at random with high temperature in the thermodynamics. It can be assumed that the probability is lower than that of nuclear fusion in the sun.


Implosion discharge to spherical center : It is a method of generating a neutron to collect protons or deuterium ions into the center of the sphere by ultra-high-voltage pulse between double spherical net electrodes in an atmosphere of hydrogen or deuterium plasma made by a lower voltage discharge. It is now said that the efficiency is very small for neutron generation by input energy. But it has already been a commercialization  technology as a neutron generator. There is an idea that the generated neutrons will be reacted with hydrogen or deuterium absorbing metal in order to realize the LENR.


High voltage pulse : It is a process to prompt the collision of electron and proton with a stimulus sometimes to give a high voltage pulse that is from millions bolt to tens of thousands volts in the electrolysis method.


High voltage discharge :  It is possible to collide efficiently the electrons accelerated to the near speed of light by high voltage discharge from millions volt to tens of thousands volt to the nuclei charged with positive electricity of the positive electrode like protons as hydrogen nuclei or deuterium nuclei in vacuum. However, this method has not yet studied in LENR. The efficiency of the nuclear reaction is unclear. It may be positively easy to experiment with a very weak pulse current of one million volts. Because you can buy 1 million volt stun gun at Amazon at several hundred US dollars.

(高圧放電 : 真空中で数万ボルトから数百万ボルトという高圧放電で、光速近くまで加速した電子を正電極の正電気を帯びた原子核、例えば水素原子核である陽子や重水素核に効率よく衝突させることができる。しかし、この方法でのLENRはほとんど研究されておらず核反応の効率は不明確である。ただし、百万ボルトの微弱なパルス電流であれば容易に実験できる。数百ドルで100万ボルトのスタンガンをアマゾンで買えるからである。)

Nuclear radiation by high voltage field :  It is possible to collide efficiently the protons or deuterium nuclei accelerated to the high speed by high voltage field from millions volt to tens of thousands volt to the electrons charged with negative electricity or the nuclei charged with positive electricity in the negative electrode in vacuum. A conventional cation gun has the way to draw positive particles through the ring shaped of the negative electrode from the plasma after ionizing the gas. It has a focus on precise control. Utilization efficiency of energy is not so good. The improvement plan is to direct radiation of positive particles from the metal that absorbs hydrogen or deuterium. This method also has not yet studied in LENR. The efficiency of the nuclear reaction is unclear.


Radiation by radioactive material : It is a method of using strong energy as a stimulus from α particles = helium nucleus,  β particles = strong electron beam or gamma rays by the radioactive substance. Low cost may be able to be considered if you re-use the nuclear waste.


Now, the main component of the cosmic rays is a muon observed on the ground. About 160 are observed per second per square meter.  The exposure amount of cosmic rays is 0.04 [μ Sv / hour]  per 1 [kg] of a human body on average. According to the calculations, it has received the energy of 67 [MeV / sec] from cosmic rays per 1 [kg] of a human body. Then, the average energy exposure would be about 10 [MeV] by one of the muon. And it seems that the range of energy is very wide. By the way, there is a phenomenon called gamma-ray bursts that fall on a powerful cosmic rays which continued while a few seconds to a few hours in several times a day. The number and energy of the muon is to concentrate in a short period of time while the gamma-ray burst.  The gamma-ray bursts might have been related in low reproducibility of LENR phenomenon.

(地上で観測される宇宙線の主成分はミュー粒子です。1平方メートル当たり毎秒にすると160個程度が観測されています。人体1[kg]あたりの宇宙線の被ばく量は平均すると0.04 [μ Sv / hour]とされます。計算によると、人体1[kg]あたり67 [MeV/ sec]のエネルギーを宇宙線から受けています。すると、一個のミュー粒子から被ばくする平均エネルギーは約10[MeV]でしょう。その範囲は幅広いと考えられています。ところで、一日に数回数秒から数時間継続して強力な宇宙線が降りかかるガンマ線バーストと呼ばれる現象があります。ガンマ線バーストでは、ミュー粒子の個数とエネルギーは短時間に集中するはずです。再現性の低いLENR現象にはガンマ線バーストが関係しているかもしれません。)

The final amount of heat generation is not different either through the path of the compression-ignition-explosion or another path of slow fairly fever near the room temperature using a platinum catalyst in the chemical reaction of combustion of gasoline as a thermal chemical formula. We can assume that the final amount of heat generation is not different through what path with what kind of nuclear reactions even in LENR according to the laws of physics if the first fuel and the last of the ash are the same. So, it is important to accurately measure the last of the ash.


There is also a criticism that it is no longer LENR to use the high voltage discharge,  the acceleration by high voltage electric field or the radiation of radioactive material. But a typical mass defect of a nuclear reaction is several MeV. I think that it is still in LENR to use some number of particles with several MeV as a stimulus.


And, it is important to provide a low cost and safe experimental apparatus with a reproduction of nuclear reactions in order to attract many researchers and to advance the progress of research.


4. Study of reaction volume (反応の種類と量の研究)

It is need to study how other nuclear reactions proceed after the stimulus to start a nuclear reaction in LENR. It is studied in the types and amounts of nuclear reaction. The types are a forced nuclear fusion, a forced fission and a spontaneous nuclear decay. The forced nuclear fusion and the forced fission are something due to artificial stimulus or other thing due to the secondary collision by the occurrence particles.


A nuclear reaction will be preferred if it is suitable for efficient use of energy. One of the best is the form of explosive burning of a small amount of fuel like the combustion of gasoline. It is a perfect control that we can cause a small explosion continuously. Typical examples of the explosion phenomena in nuclear reaction is  fission of 235 uranium. When the neutron collides with the 235 uranium nucleus, energy is not only generated by nuclear fission happened, but two of neutrons also occurs. Since the stimulus of the neutron is double, the next nuclear fission is double, the result is a burst of explosion. It is desirable to find such a explosive reaction in the early stages of research of LENR.


It is expected that there are three paths to generate neutrons from the study of LENR. First, the neutron derived from the collision of electrons and protons. However, the probability of this case is unclear in the conventional physics. Secondly, neutron derived from the collision of deuterium nuclei. In the collision of deuterium nuclei, a 3-helium and a neutron occur or a tritium and a proton occur, a 4-helium is a very few probability (1.0e-6). Third, neutrons from the collision of the electrons and other atomic nuclei or protons and other atomic nuclei, for example, lithium.

(LENRの研究から予想されている中性子の発生経路は、三種類あります。第一に、電子と陽子の衝突に由来する中性子。ただし、従来の物理学では確率は不明。第二に、重水素原子核同士の衝突に由来する中性子。重水素原子核同士の衝突では、4ヘリウムはごく僅かしか発生せず (確率 1.0e-6)、3ヘリウムと中性子、または、三重水素と陽子になります。第三に電子や陽子と他の原子核、例えばリチウムとの衝突に由来する中性子です。)

Once the neutrons are generated, it will easily begin the nuclear reaction with neutrons and other atomic nuclei. A wide variety of nuclear reactions will continue to occur one after another. This is a phenomenon described in a conventional theory.


The mass defect of a nuclear reaction will be the kinetic energy of  a nucleus and a electron or will be gamma rays by the formula of mass and energy, E=mc^2. When the particles moving with high speed is stopped by colliding on other particles, the kinetic energy is emitted as a gamma ray. I am assuming that the majority of the high-speed kinetic energy of a nucleus will soon change into the gamma-ray because LENR is a nuclear reaction inside the solid or the liquid of metal absorbed hydrogen or deuterium with much higher density than a gas-plasma.

(質量とエネルギーの等価公式 E=mc^2に従って、核反応の質量欠損は、発生した原子核や電子の運動エネルギーまたはガンマ線となります。高速の粒子が他の粒子と衝突して停止すると運動エネルギーはガンマ線として放射されます。私は、LENRはガス・プラズマよりはるかに密度の高い金属の固体または液体の内部の核反応のため高速運動エネルギーの大半はガンマ線になると仮定しています。)

Gamma rays will collide with electrons or atomic nuclei near. This is called Compton effect. Electrons are accelerated after the collisions of gamma rays. And they cause the next nuclear reactions. Gamma rays reduces the energy after the collisions. If a nucleus absorbs a gamma ray into itself after the collision, the nucleus will became excited state, but, in many cases,  it emits the same gamma rays after a few milliseconds.


A study of the ash of the nucleus is necessary even in LENR. I expect the ash with a radioactivity comes out in LENR.


5. Use of computer (コンピューターの活用)

The center of study of LENR was the experiment of electrolysis and gas loading for many years. We can only observe from the outside of the apparatus while the experiment. Observation items are amount of heat,  a measurement of the neutron and radiation dose. We make the component analysis of the ash after the end of the experiment. Unfortunately, human beings do not have the technology to measure what kind of nuclear reaction is taking place for each type of isotopes of atoms inside the material of the reactor during the experiment.


And there are already a lot of hypothesis in the field of LENR. But, it does not seem able to verify them in the previous measurement method.


For this reason, it is necessary to calculate the detail of what is happening inside the device using a computer simulation program taking up the knowledge of standard nuclear physics and your new hypothesis of LENR.


We can also test the hypothesis by comparing the prediction of a computer simulation program and the measurement data of experiment.